Hungary was one of the most powerful countries of Europe for over six hundred years. Her downturn began with the Turkish invasion in 1541. Then through marriages, the Habsburg dynasty seized power. As a result, Austria and Hungary became a dual Monarchy. Even so, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Croatia, Transylvania and Fiume (a city and port on the Adriatic Sea, now Rijeka) remained part of the Hungarian Kingdom until the end of the First World War.


Exhibit 37: The flag from the XI. Century and the small Coat of Arms


            Through the centuries, the Hungarian kings used many different coat of arms. In 1896, the use and the components of the coat of arms became regulated by law. The small coat of arms (exhibit 37) was used by government entities in Hungary, and it is in use today since 1990. On the right half (facing left) there are four red bars and four white bars. Preceded by the Covenant of Blood (Vérszövetség in Hungarian), these stripes represent the federation of eight nations which conquered the Carpathian Basin in 895 A.D. In the XI century flag (the flag of the federation) underscores this interpretation: the color red represents the hierarchy of government, the white the nobility, and they have shared the power to rule. In the left half (facing right), lies a cross, a crown, and a green triple peaked mountain. This combination of symbols has two possible interpretations: 1. Apostolic Kingdom. In this case the cross represents apostolic power, because it was bestowed on the Hungarian kings; the green triple mountain stands for country or kingdom; or 2. God's Country. In this case, based on ancient pictographs, the cross symbolizes God and the triple mountain stands for country. All three components are ancient symbols used in pictographs (for example, much like the cross and triple mountain in Egypt). The Holy Crown of Hungary resides on the top of the Coat of Arms.


Exhibit 38: The large Coat of Arms

The large coat of arms (exhibit 38) represented the countries and territories of the Hungarian Kingdom, along with the government ministries under which they functioned. Each of these countries and territories were represented as follows: (facing the coat of arms.) upper left, Dalmatia; lower left, Slavonia; upper right, Croatia; lower right, Transylvania; bottom, Fiume; in the center, Hungary - and on the very top is the Hungarian Holy Crown.